Will Your CEO Leave When Times Get Tough

If you want to know whether your CEO is going to jump ship when times get tough, look at what kind of relationships they have with other professionals, new research suggests. A study recently published in the Strategic Management Journal found that a CEO’s decision to voluntarily leave a company when it starts to fail is driven by the executive’s social capital – the personal relationships they have with business colleagues and key external stakeholders. The researchers found that executives who have strong social capital as well as those who have poor social ties with business colleagues are the least likely to quit when their organizations start to suffer. It’s those right in the middle who are the least likely to stick around and ride out the ship when times get rough.

Han Jiang, the study’s lead researcher and an assistant professor at the University of Arizona, said a CEO’s decision to stay or go is ultimately a cost-benefit dilemma. He said when a company fails, an executive’s reputation could suffer dramatically, which could prompt them to leave before things get too bad. On the other hand, if they leave, they risk losing out on access to valuable company resources and connections.

The study found that CEOs with low social capital are unlikely to leave a failing company because their minimal connections make quitting not a viable option. “If I don’t have strong enough social capital and I don’t know anybody in this business circle, even if I want to escape from my declining firm, I probably won’t be able to find opportunities that will allow me to do so,” Jiang said in a statement. “I probably will be locked up in my company, so I have no choice but to stay.” Conversely, CEOs with strong professional networks are also unlikely to leave struggling firms. Jiang said CEOs with strong social capital likely aren’t worried about the negative consequences to their reputation if their company fails. “Even if my firm does end up failing, I can still manage to leverage my strong connections to find myself a parachute that will allow me to land safely after that failure,” Jiang said. “More importantly, if I have very strong social capital, I’m probably more confident about using my capability and my resources to save my firm.” The research discovered that it’s those CEOs with a moderate level of social capital who are the most likely to bolt for the door when their companies start to head south.

“If I have a medium level of social capital, I can leverage my fairly established social network to find myself alternative employment opportunities,” Jiang said. “Compared to extremely socially connected executives, I’m probably not that confident about being able to save my firm, and I probably won’t be that protected from the consequences of a potential public failure. I have both the motivation and the capability to leave.” The study was based on an analysis of the social capital and voluntary job movements of 278 executives of declining firms in China. The researchers controlled for factors such as CEOs’ age, education, gender, compensation, executive shareholding and tenure in their current positions. Although the study looked specifically at firms in China, the researchers believe the findings hold true across cultures and industries. Jiang believes the research can provide some fresh insight into the operation of declining firms.

Culture of Fear for a Better Bottom Line

Company culture makes a difference for employees, which means hiring and retaining talent that effectively meets goals. If a company is leading with fear and lack of self-awareness, the company is more likely to have a high turnover. “If your organization doesn’t have a healthy culture, then two things can happen. First, the workplace environment can be unpleasant and friction-filled, which ultimately may lead to attrition by your best employees,” said Ken Staut, founder and CEO of GrowthFountain, an equity crowdfunding platform. “And second, your organization won’t reach its full potential, because not everybody within your organization shares the same values or buys into the company mission.” “People won’t stay [at the company],” said Lior Rachmany, CEO and founder of Brooklyn-based, Dumbo Moving + Storage. “If people feel overly watched or that they will get shouted out if they make a mistake, they will leave your company as soon as they can.”

That attitude comes at a price. It’s costly to replace employees. According to a CAP study, to replace an employee who earns $30,000 to $50,000 a year, it will cost a company 20 percent of that employee’s annual salary. For example, to replace an employee who makes $50,000 annually, it would cost the company $10,000.

“A negative, fear-based work culture can absolutely affect the bottom line of any company because replacing unhappy employees is expensive,” said Phil Shawe, founder and Co-CEO of TransPerfect,  a translation and content management company. “Each time you lose an employee, whether they were a high or low performer, it costs the company a lot to interview, hire and train each new hire.”

 

Positives of a healthy culture

It’s possible leaders of companies see “positive culture” as startup culture. You don’t need to provide employees with getaways or a beer tap if that doesn’t match your company’s values. Rather, making employees feel welcome and part of the process goes a long way.

“Life is too short. If team members aren’t having fun, if they don’t enjoy the environment where they spend most of their waking moments, they’ll look for something else to do,” Staut said.

The positives to having a good company culture are increased motivation to come into the workplace, Shawe said.

This means a larger emphasis on the creative flow of ideas and collaboration, along with a higher retention rate of employees and promotional hiring from within, he added.

“If you have a good culture, your employees will be more open to learning/being mentored because they will trust your leadership,” Rachmany said.

 

Fixing the culture

It can be an overwhelming task tackling such a sweeping problem. Fixing company culture isn’t an easy undertaking, but it can be done. It takes hiring and retaining the right people. [See Related Story: 4 Ways to Improve Your Company Culture]

“There’s an old saying: If you hire someone for a paycheck, they’ll work for your money. But if you hire someone who believes what you believe, they’ll work for you with blood, sweat and tears,” Staut said. “Passionate employees who believe in your company’s mission and share your company’s values will help you succeed.”

Matthew Gonnering, CEO of Widen, a digital asset management company, suggests these five approaches to move your company in the right direction:

  • Don’t hire emotionally ignorant leaders. Some leaders instill fear in people because they don’t know any other way to motivate; they are not self-aware and not empathetic to the needs of others. Keep them out; encourage self-discovery.
  • Leave your baggage at the door. New hires bring all kinds of behaviors with them that are not natural: At their previous job, they were told to not question, not share, don’t think, just do. Not only is that not normal, it pollutes the work culture of their new job. A business  needs inquisitive employees who are willing to question everything. We think on-boarding mentors can help with this.

Show Employee Appreciation

Anyone can perform a task at work knowing the end result is a salary. However, passion and hard work often stems from affirmations employees hear from their boss or manager. Workers don’t just crave a paycheck — they want recognition, verbal appreciation and encouragement. Of course, it’s easy to say “thank you” or “good job” and be done with it; but there are countless ways to show your support and respect for your employees. Business News Daily asked business owners and experts to share the best ways to make your employees feel more appreciated. 1. Let employees reward one another. “[Put] the power of recognition and reward in their hands. I use apps and programs like YouEarnedIt to give my employees the power to give each other kudos for good work done. I let my team members choose their reward, too, because not everyone wants a cash bonus or a gift card.”

2. Offer employees a platform. “It could be done as a request to share. When we let people know we value what they have to offer by asking if they’d share their story, tips, methods, etc. with others, it provides validation to them that they do have something of value to offer, and it boosts their self-confidence and self-esteem in the process. This doesn’t mean we add a training function to their currently overloaded job, but it could be sharing at a team or organizational event, award ceremony or even in a newsletter.” – Sandy Geroux, CEO, WOWplace International 3. Let employees make important decisions. “Let them make decisions that matter and can impact the company. Verbal appreciation is important, and bonuses or other perks are appreciated, but ultimately, showing someone that you trust their opinion and expertise is far more valuable.” – Drew Thomas, chief creative officer, Brolik 4. Give them little surprises. “My favorite forms of appreciation include unexpected treats like group lunches or a shortened workday. I also like activities that add value for both the individual and the company, including team-building challenges and fully paid continuing-education courses.”

– Kelsey Libert, vice president of marketing, Fractl 5. Be specific with praise. “Leaders need to be specific in expressing their appreciation so that it reinforces behaviors through positive feedback for the employee. Instead of a generic ‘great job,’ be specific — for example, ‘I really like how you’ve pulled the discussion back together – You’re an exemplary collaborator.’ Being specific also adds meaning and inspires the employee to further develop their skills in that particular area.” – Reuven Gorsht, global vice president of customer strategy, SAP 6. Give employees extra time off. “I think the most valuable way to recognize an employee today is through time —that is, time off, time to do something else besides work. It could be family, a hobby, or a charity, or a short vacation. I don’t think it needs to be routine or regular, and has the most value when it’s unexpected.” – Mark S. Valenti, president and CEO, The Sextant Group

Hire Overqualified Candidates

Hiring managers shouldn’t be so quick to eliminate overqualified candidates from consideration for new jobs. A new study in the Academy of Management Journal revealed that employees who are considered overqualified for a job can take the position in a new, positive direction. Employees who are overqualified, up to a certain point, bring an added level of innovation and dedication to their jobs, according to the research. “A low-to-intermediate degree of perceived underemployment may drive employees to craft their jobs actively in ways that benefit the organization,” the study’s authors wrote. “Recruitment managers should not turn away job applicants who are overqualified, because such individuals, if managed appropriately, may bring creativity and organizational citizenship behavior to the organization.”

The degree to which someone is overqualified plays a critical role in determining whether or not they bring a unique perspective to their job. The study’s authors said when underemployment is perceived as too high, employees are often not motivated enough to do their jobs.

Employees who can bring a fresh perspective to how a job is done are highly valuable in today’s workplace. “Organizations today compete in a dynamic and uncertain environment in which creativity and organizational citizenship behavior are highly valuable,” the study’s authors wrote. For the research, the study’s authors conducted two studies of two different types of employees: school teachers and factory workers. In the first study, researchers surveyed 327 teachers at six high schools in China. Initially the teachers were queried on how overqualified, one a scale of one to seven, they felt they were for their jobs. One week later, they were asked to what extent they had engaged in job-crafting, such as introducing new approaches of their own to the classroom, organizing special events or bringing in materials from home. A final survey, another week later, asked the teachers to rate their creativity and organizational citizenship, which is defined as behavior that goes above and beyond the basic requirements of a job. The researchers found that job-crafting reached its peak among those who rated themselves a five on how overqualified they felt they were for their position.

The study’s authors said these teachers tended to do significantly more job-crafting than their peers who saw themselves as either more or less overqualified. The researchers said that extra job-crafting resulted in high ratings for both creativity and citizenship. In a second study, the researchers analyzed nearly 300 electronic toy factory workers. To determine how overqualified a worker was, the study’s authors had the technicians try to reproduce a model helicopter in less than 10 minutes. The number of pieces that the technicians were able to assemble in the short amount of time provided a reference to assess overqualification for this kind of work. The technicians were then given a second task. They were asked to design and assemble, in 30 minutes, at least one toy boat patterned after a model projected on a screen. Although a single boat required at least 30 components, the workers were free to use an unlimited number of parts to produce as many boats as they wanted. “If the workers used more than 30 pieces and assembled boats in different patterns . . . the excess number of the parts reflected the degree of self-driven effort for altering task boundary, i.e. task-crafting,” the study’s authors wrote.

Creating a Successful

Businesses hire interns to share their field experience with newcomers, get entry-level and administrative tasks done, and help students get the real-world experience they need to be successful. Although these student employees often work in exchange for stipends or academic credit, employers need to be careful: Interns do not equal free labor, and if you’re thinking of welcoming interns into your office, there are a few key points to consider before you make your first hire. Business News Daily spoke with legal and HR experts about providing a beneficial, legally compliant experience for your interns in a for-profit setting. The pay question: What duties are being performed? Pop culture (based on many real-life stories) makes it seem like interns’ lives revolve around making copies, standing in long lines to get everyone coffee, and answering their boss’s phone calls in the middle of the night, all without a single penny in return. However, there are tasks that an intern could be doing that would categorize them as an employee – which would mean legal entitlement to compensation.

The decision of whether to pay an intern is largely based on what the intern is doing. Adam Kemper, a labor and employment attorney for the Greenspoon Marder law firm, said there needs to be a distinction between interns’ duties and a typical employee’s duties if you don’t intend to pay them. “On a day-to-day basis, what is the intern doing?” Kemper said. “Shadowing? Running errands? Is he or she (working) independently or supervised?” “Ensure that (an unpaid) intern is not performing work or taking on responsibilities that would typically be performed by a full-time employee,” added Samantha Lambert, director of human resources at Blue Fountain Media. If there’s any doubt whatsoever about whether the worker should be classified as an intern or employee, Kemper advised sticking with “employee” and adding him or her to the payroll. “What’s problematic for companies is that they’re having interns run errands, get coffee, buy things for (employees) – nothing educational,” Kemper said. “If you want to have someone do that, treat them as an employee and pay minimum wage.” What tasks can an intern perform? If you decide to pay your intern, that might change the way you structure your program. Paid interns who receive at least minimum wage and overtime pay for working beyond 40 hours per week can technically perform the work of your regular workforce. However, the Department of Labor has a very specific set of guidelines regarding what unpaid interns can and can’t do. If receiving academic credit is not a possibility or the intern is already out of school, Lambert noted, your company must comply with the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This means your internship program must be designed so your company does not benefit at all from the interns’ work, and the experience should be for educational purposes only. The employer should aim to provide the intern with skills that can be used in his or her future career, rather than skills particular to its own operations.

A good way to make the experience educational is to talk to the intern about the differences between school and career and tie their education into their internship. “Students can have an idealistic view of how their college course has totally prepared them for the full-time position,” said Tim Elmore, president of Growing Leaders. “While I can remain very positive about the need for higher education, I always communicate how different an eight-hour workday on the job is compared to a school day on the campus. I talk about the practical value of soft skills … versus the classroom, which measures memorization and test scores.” Kemper advised thinking about the tasks you’d want an intern to do long before you begin searching for candidates. This way, you can clearly articulate the duties and learning experience an intern can expect from your company.

3 Tips for Finding Entry Level Talent

With college graduation just around the corner, the job market is about to be flooded with entry-level talent looking for full-time jobs and internships. For employers, taking advantage of the influx of newly minted professionals can be as simple as having a good campus recruiting strategy in place. “College recruiting is a smart, predictable, scalable way to bring talent into any organization,” said Tey Scott, director of talent acquisition at LinkedIn. “Smart companies know they need to invest in early-in-career talent to compete in the long term. In tech in particular, getting early-in-career technical talent in the door may be the difference between being able to scale their company fast enough to deliver on product road maps or not.” The college career fair is the traditional method of on-campus recruiting, but based on LinkedIn’s success, Scott recommends implementing out-of-the-box initiatives that provide value on campus while also getting in front of targeted recruits.

“The question we asked ourselves was, what would it take to identify nearly all early-in-career talent without having to rely on physical on-campus events?” she said. “To start, we looked beyond focusing our efforts solely on specific universities and schools, which tends to result in a limited pool of applicants over time. We moved away from career fairs at well-known universities and began thinking regionally, which has allowed us to successfully engage with, train and attract various student groups on our platform.”

Scott noted that LinkedIn has also made it a priority to organize more unique, engaging events, such as offering students help with their LinkedIn profiles and taking their headshots.

“LinkedIn’s vision is to create economic opportunity for every member of the global workforce, so by focusing more on supporting students’ professional development rather than focusing on recruiting, we can empower students to hone their professional skills to help them land their dream job,” Scott said.

 

Creating a smart campus recruiting strategy

When you’re building a program to attract early-career professionals, branding is everything, said Scott. Mobilizing employees to attend on-campus events like career fairs and mock interviews can be time-consuming and expensive, Scott said — and more importantly, you may not come away finding the best, most diverse talent if you limit yourself to a few select schools.

“If you are a company looking to build your brand, we suggest getting out in front of as many students as possible to see what kind of talent you can attract,” she said. “Chances are you will find you don’t want to limit yourselves to the traditional model of campus recruiting and instead want to broaden your reach.”

In a LinkedIn blog post, Scott offered the following tips for employers looking to find great entry-level talent in the soon-to-be college graduate pool:

1. Focus on targeting by region, not by school. Scott noted that this broadens your pool of potential candidates and, in tandem, the diversity of your pool.

2. Host professional development events. You can engage potential candidates better by branding your efforts as a “development” event, rather than one designed solely for recruitment, said Scott. For example, LinkedIn hosts profile stations on campuses to help students take professional headshots and increase their job prospects.

3. Build and develop programs that encourage hands-on interaction. LinkedIn developed a new program called Accelerate U to provide promising candidates a forum to learn, engage and connect through daylong workshops around professional branding, networking and interview skills.

“The key to our success with the program has been placing emphasis on the importance of skill building through workshops around personal branding, networking and interviewing,” Scott said. “Our goal is to arm students with the skills necessary to put their best foot forward in interviews not just for our company, but for any professional opportunity they choose. By adding value for candidates and a sense of authenticity to our recruitment initiatives, we’ve seen our programs resonate more with on-campus audiences.”

Bad Hire Really Costing Your Business

The average cost of hiring the wrong employee is $17,000, according to research conducted by Career Builder. That means getting the hiring decision right the first time is essential, but how can hiring managers be sure they’re bringing on the right people? Conventional hiring methods follow a simple process where candidates apply based on a vague job description, several are selected for interviews, and then eventually one is selected. But oftentimes what seemed like the right fit quickly becomes a hiring error. Rex Conner, human resources consultant and author of “What if Common Sense Was Common Practice in Business?” (CreateSpace Independent Publishing, 2016) told Business News Daily the fix is simple: reduce subjectivity in the hiring process. “The biggest obstacle to hiring the right people, onboarding them, training them, evaluating and developing them is subjectivity,” Conner said. “We end up with these ridiculous conversations where an interviewer asks, ‘What’s your biggest weakness,’ and (the response) is ‘I work too much.’ That doesn’t tell you anything about the skills required.”

Given that Career Builder found nearly 60 percent of bad hires went wrong because the employee could not produce the level of work required by the employer, understanding skill set at step one is imperative to avoiding a hiring disaster. Conner offered up the following advice for hiring managers whom are rethinking the hiring process in terms of demonstrable skills and objective measurements of candidates.

  • Develop and articulate two sets of skills: prerequisites and trained. Prerequisites are the skills that a candidate should come to the interview prepared to demonstrate. These skills are required for the job and new employees will not be trained in them. The trained skills are ones that will be learned on the job; some prior proficiency is desirable, but not necessarily required.
  • Reduce the chatter in interviews. Make the interview more about asking the candidate to demonstrate their prerequisite skills than asking open-ended questions that ultimately give you little insight. Once the skills have been demonstrated, ask those questions if you’d like, but there’s no sense in asking them of someone who cannot demonstrate an ability to do the work.
  • Make subjective “soft skills” objective. Things like “cultural fit” and “team player” are somewhat subjective; every company sees a “team player” slightly differently. Conner recommends breaking down these “soft skills” into their component parts. Exactly what do you look for in a team player or in a cultural fit? Name those things to make them concrete, and then ask yourself if you see those traits in your candidate.
  • Narrow the list with job requirements – Getting candidates to whittle down your list for you is key. This can be done by posting job requirements, such as “willing to work weekends” or “must be willing to travel.” Any potential candidates unwilling to abide by these requirements will not make it through your door for an interview, thereby saving time, money and reducing the risk of making a wrong hire.
  • Be subjective if you’re stuck. At this point, Conner said, you’ve got all you need to decide. If two candidates are deadlocked after you have assessed their required skills, determined their coachability on trained skills, examined their soft skills and explained the job requirements in detail, subjectivity still serves.

 

Visa Program Faces Regulatory Changes

The H-1B visa program, which offers 85,000 visas each year to foreign skilled or specialty workers, is undergoing some changes. The program, which grants certain employers access to foreign labor when the necessary skills are not available within the U.S. workforce, is facing three major changes initiated by the executive branch to clamp down on perceived abuses. On March 31, the U.S. Customs and Immigration Services (USCIS) announced that computer programmers, typically considered the lowest qualifying position for the H-1B program, would have to demonstrate that they’ve attained at least a bachelor’s degree in their field; associate’s degrees would no longer be considered acceptable. As a follow-up to this change, the USCIS announced on April 3 that “H-1B dependent employers” (companies with a workforce composition of at least 15 percent H-1B visa holders) would be subject to more stringent screenings to ensure compliance with the law.

“This identifies heavy users of H-1B visas,” Dick Burke, CEO of Envoy Global, told Business News Daily. “What (USCIS) is saying is, ‘When we make site visits for compliance, we are going to focus on H-1B dependent companies or those with a high percentage of workers working off site … in a consulting capacity.'” Then, on April 4,, the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) jumped into the game with an announcement that it would step up enforcement actions against companies that violated the law, particularly with respect to displacing American workers. “The H-1B visa program authorizes the temporary employment of qualified individuals who are not otherwise authorized to work in the U.S,” a U.S. DOL statement reads.

“In recent years, some employers have used the H-1B program to hire foreign workers despite American workers being qualified and available for work, or even to replace American workers.” According to Burke, these three measures taken together are targeting what is known as the “infotech industry,” in which companies employ large numbers of IT workers from abroad – most commonly from India – as consultants, which then support IT operations for other companies. “There are instances where displacement does occur,” Burke said. “And it’s undebatable that infotech gets a large percentage of the H-1B visas. However, the problem is that (discussions of displacement) drowns out the bigger problem, which is a skills shortage in U.S. STEM jobs.” On April 7, just five days after this year’s H-1B lottery opened, the number of applicants had already exceeded the limit. This has become the norm in recent years, with USCIS receiving almost three times as many applications as the limit in 2016. “Many employers have retracted from sponsoring prospective H-1B employees because the uncertainty makes it cost-prohibitive for companies to invest time and money in an employee who may not be able to work for them after all,” said Renata Castro, an immigration attorney at the Castro Legal Group.

 

When it comes to managing employees

When it comes to managing employees, it can be tempting to watch your workers like a hawk. However, new research shows that granting a degree of autonomy to your employees tends to boost their job satisfaction and overall sense of well-being. Researchers at the University of Birmingham Business School found that workers given more autonomy – in the form of work from home privileges or the pace of work and deadlines – were far more likely to report feeling valued by their employers. “Greater levels of control over work tasks and schedule have the potential to generate significant benefits for the employee,” Daniel Wheatley, senior lecturer in business and labour economics at the Birmingham Business School, said in a statement. “The positive effects associated with informal flexibility and working at home offer further support to the suggestion that schedule control is highly valued and important to employees ‘enjoying’ work.”

When it comes to autonomy, the disparity between management and worker is apparent: 90 percent of those employees working in management reported “some” or “a lot” of autonomy in the workplace, while just 40 to 50 percent of non-management professionals surveyed reported experiencing autonomous working conditions. The remaining half of employees reported no autonomy in their workplace, researchers found. Autonomy also comes in different shapes and sizes for different employees. The study found, for example, that men and women tend to enjoy different aspects of autonomy and were affected by it in different ways. For women, Wheatley said, the type of work and level of control over scheduling and location was often more important, while men typically found control over job tasks, the pace of work, and the order of task completion to be particularly important. Despite the benefits reported by those employees that experience greater autonomy in the workplace, researchers also found that managers tend to be skeptical of extending more autonomy to the workers they oversee. Researchers hypothesize that the reluctance on the part of managers stems from a desire to keep productivity levels high, and the stigma that greater autonomy might undermine their role of “control and effort extraction” from employees.

Job Candidates Do Their Homework When Applying for Work

Job candidates are no longer comfortable applying for a job knowing very little about the position they are seeking, new research finds. A study from the outsourcing firm ManpowerGroup Solutions revealed that today’s job seekers have access to more information than ever about a company and a position in the early stages of the job search process. The research shows that compensation and the type of work they will be performing are the two most desired pieces of information prospective candidates want to know before even sending their resumes in for a job opening.

“Easy access to information has changed the way individuals find jobs and jobs find individuals,” said Jim McCoy, vice president and global practice leader for ManpowerGroup Solutions, in a statement. “As organizations across the globe continue to report difficulties filling roles, understanding candidate preferences is critical. Candidates worldwide want to be able to visualize themselves in an organization.” The study shows that on average, 45 percent of candidates in the U.S. have information about compensation prior to completing the application process. That’s far less, however, than job seekers in Asia. Nearly three-quarters of candidates in Japan and 81 percent in China know how much a position pays before applying.

“Earlier and more complete disclosure of compensation information may also increase recruiting efficiency, as candidates can remove themselves from consideration when one of their primary motivators for career decisions and job switching does not meet their expectations,” the study’s authors wrote.

The research found that schedule flexibility and benefit options are two other areas job candidates spend time researching before applying for a job. More than 40 percent of job candidates in the U.S. said they have information on the company’s benefits before submitting an application.

Company mission, corporate brand, culture and commitment to corporate social responsibility are among the other top issues job candidates want to know about when applying for a job.

“It’s time for employers to move beyond the final interview disclosure to being upfront and open and own the conversation,” McCoy said.

ManpowerGroup Solutions offers several tips to attract today’s knowledge-seeking job candidates:

  1. Beef up your website. The first place job candidates turn to when researching a job they are considering applying for is a company website. It is important that employers have current and up-to-date information on their websites. This helps build their brand and increase access to the information candidates are seeking.
  2. Be willing to share more. Knowing that job candidates have higher expectations about the information they are privy to before applying for a job, it is up to employers to be upfront with that information. While typically these types of details are not disclosed until later on in the job search process, employers should consider sharing more information early on. This includes more transparency around compensation.
  3. Know what candidates are saying. It is critical employers have a clear understanding of how they are perceived by job candidates. This means monitoring social media and employer review sites, such as Glassdoor.